|plumerias first should be isolated over a period of time to observe or check (test) for
the presence of virus. All FrMV-infected plants should be separated from the rest of
collection and/or destroyed. Using a sterilized cutting tool is also the key to
preventing the spread of the FrMV, which may be present in the plumeria trees
growing in the garden, to the rest of the collection. My routine practice of pruning
plumerias in the garden is to carry as many sterilized knives as possible with me and
use only one knife per plumeria plant. They are then sterilized in boiling water for
Plumerias with the virus should not be allowed to be registered as a new cultivar
based upon its appearance of the flowers with the color break. It is just a diseased
plant, not an innovative one.
|symptoms are commonly seen in plumerias
which are sold in the markets everywhere.
Some virused plumerias may look normal,
but the symptoms generally appear in a
later stage. Thus it is important to address
this issue to increase growers' awareness,
to keep the virus under control, and to save
all great plumeria cultivars from being
In an attempt to keep the whole plumeria
collection virus-free, newly acquired
|vector. Viral-contaminated cutting tools used in grafting and pruning are likely the
most common means of FrMV transmission. Unfortunately, it is how this particular
virus spreads rapidly and covertly in plumerias, especially in Thailand. Nowadays, its
|people. From my point of view, however, the
color break is unacceptable since it distorts the
original colors of flowers. In addition, unlike
other diseases, it is incurable, and the virus
that resides in the infected plant may
accidently spread to other plumeria trees
somehow, and finally, the whole collection may
all be infected.
According to DPVweb, the FrMV transmitted
by mechanical inoculation not involving a
|Virus-causing color break in Plumerias
Based upon visual observation of infected plumeria plants from various places for a
number of years, it seems that Frangipani Mosaic Virus (FrMV) has a minimal effect
on the growth and the health of most plumerias with the exception of severe cases in
a few cultivars. Its symptoms may include, e.g., leaf malformation, mottled leaf,
and/or splash or color break (CB), especially on the petals. Some plumeria trees
appear normal with only an occasional CB on the petals, which is attractive to some
|Plumerias are easy to grow and relatively carefree with only a few pests and disease
problems. From time to time, however, an infestation occurs which affects the
growth of the plants. Some major pests and diseases found in plumerias in Thailand
are briefed here with an emphasis on viruses.
|Other pests/diseases in Plumerias in Thailand
|Symptoms in Plumerias caused by Virus
|The original color of virus-free Vishanu Gold
|Vishanu Gold infected with FrMV
Frangipani Mosaic Virus (DPVWeb)
FrMV (Plant Viruses Online)
FrMV testing service
The complete genomic RNA of FrMV
|Important Notes related to FrMV and its symptoms:
*FrMV resides in infected plant throughout the plant's life. The disease is incurable.
*FrMV does not transmit through seed, resulting in absence of virus in seedling (produced from the seed of
*FrMV transmitted through sap by mechanical innoculation (cutting tools) not involving a vector. After
infection with a virus, first sign of symptom in plant may take months or longer to appear (depended upon
plumeria cultivar, and plant's and environmental conditions).
*FrMV is more active and its symptoms develop more quickly at HIGH temperature. It is the VIRUS (not
HEAT) that is responsible for these unique viral symptoms in plumeria plant.
*FrMV replication causes a change in color pattern of pigmented plumeria flowers by intensification and
overaccumulation of epidermal anthocyanin pigments in the petals.
*The symptoms in plumeria caused by FrMV are quite specific. But they may vary with plumeria
specie/cultivar, parts of the plant and viral strains. Major symptoms are mottled markings on the leaves and
color breaks on the flowers.
*The symptom patterns generally change with stage of plant development (e.g. flower or leaf age).
*The symptoms do not necessarily appear in all parts of the plant (e.g. flower and leaf) at the same time.
In case of Plumerias (eg. P. alba) with pure white flowers (no pigment), the symptom only appears on leaves.
*FrMV does not kill plumeria plant. Most virused plumerias are apparently healthy with symptoms
occasionally appear on flower and/or leaf. Some cultivars may frequently exhibit symptoms especially the
color break on flower petals. However a few cultivars may be severely affected by FrMV.
*Looks for the virus lesions on a newly emerging leaf and flower. These are where the symptoms first reveal
themselves (before evolving further with leaf or flower age) and are a strong indication of FrMV evidence.