plumerias first should be isolated over a period of time to observe or check (test) for
the presence of virus.  All FrMV-infected plants should be separated from the rest of
collection and/or destroyed.  Using a sterilized cutting tool is also the key to
preventing the spread of the FrMV, which may be present in the plumeria trees
growing in the garden, to the rest of the collection.  My routine practice of pruning
plumerias in the garden is to carry as many sterilized knives as possible with me and
use
only one knife per plumeria plant.  They are then sterilized in boiling water for
further use.

Plumerias with the virus should not be allowed to be registered as a new cultivar
based upon its appearance of the flowers with the color break.  It is just a diseased
plant, not an innovative one.
symptoms are commonly seen in plumerias
which are sold in the markets everywhere.  
Some virused plumerias may look normal,
but the symptoms generally appear in a
later stage.  Thus it is important to address
this issue to increase growers' awareness,
to keep the virus under control, and to save
all great plumeria cultivars from being
infected.

In an attempt to keep the whole plumeria
collection virus-free, newly acquired
vector.  Viral-contaminated cutting tools used in grafting and pruning are likely the
most common means of FrMV transmission.  Unfortunately, it is how this particular
virus spreads rapidly and covertly in plumerias, especially in Thailand.  Nowadays, its
people.  From my point of view, however, the
color break is unacceptable since it distorts the
original colors of flowers.  In addition, unlike
other diseases, it is incurable, and the virus
that resides in the infected plant may
accidently spread to other plumeria trees
somehow, and finally, the whole collection may
all be infected.

According to
ICTVdb, the FrMV transmitted
by mechanical inoculation not involving a
Virus-causing color break in Plumerias

Based upon visual observation of infected plumeria plants from various places for a
number of years, it seems that Frangipani Mosaic Virus (FrMV) has a minimal effect
on the growth and the health of most plumerias with the exception of severe cases in
a few cultivars.  Its symptoms may include, e.g., leaf malformation, mottled leaf,
and/or splash or color break (CB), especially on the petals.  Some plumeria trees
appear normal with only an occasional CB on the petals, which is attractive to some
Plumerias are easy to grow and relatively carefree with only a few pests and disease
problems.  From time to time, however, an infestation occurs which affects the
growth of the plants.  Some major pests and diseases found in plumerias in Thailand
are briefed here with an emphasis on viruses.
Chompoo Paan plumeria
Plumeria Diseases
Other pests/diseases in Plumerias in Thailand
Rim Fire plumeria Bali Whirl plumeria
Color break (red splash areas) on petals of Rim Fire
(left picture) and Bali Whirl plumerias (right picture)
caused by virus.  
The symptoms on the petals develop as
the flowers emerge.
 Seedlings of the virus infected
Rim Fire have no sign of virus.
Muang Phuang Roi plumeria An unknown very light pink plumeria
Left picture: Color break (darker purple area) on
petals of Muang Phuang Roi plumeria caused by virus.

Right picture: Color break (pink area) on petals of
very light pink flowers.
Coral Cream plumeria
Left picture: Symptoms (dark red spots) on petioles
and stems of Coral Cream plumeria caused by virus.

Right picture: A severe leaf malformation and
mottled leaves in a Thai plumeria caused by virus.  
For this particular case, it stunts the growth of the
plant.
New emerging leaf with viral symptom Mature leaf with viral symptom
Mottled/splotchy leaves caused by virus.  Normally
symptoms develop right from the start as new leaves
emerge
(left picture).  Then they become lighter in
color with leaf age (right picture).
An unknown variegated plumeria Namwan plumeria
Left picture: This variegated foliage (light/dark
green) is a form of Chimera.  But the dark brown
mottled areas on the leaf indicted that it is infected
with virus.
Right picture: Namwan--a chimeric variegated
plumeria (green on light pink background) often
found to be infected with virus (brown spots
throughout the entire leaf).
Symptoms of virus on newly emerging leaves in
bud-grafted plumerias (left and right pictures).  The
scion used was a bud from a virused plant while the
root stock was an one year old seedling.
Leaves infected with spider mites (left picture) and
webbing between the midrib (right picture).

They thrive in warm and dry conditions --especially a lack of
rainfall for an extended period of time.  The mites feed on
plant juices and cause leaf yellowing and bronzing on upper
leaf surface.  Spray of water directly to the leaves helps to keep
their population down.  In severe case, Miticite should be used.
Suggested Reading:
Click here.
Mealy bugs on underside of young and mature leaves.

(under construction)
Leaves and inflorescence affected by Mealy bugs.

(under construction)
Broad mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) feed on underside of
newly formed leaf (left picture).  As they feed, they inject their
toxin saliva and damage meristematic tissue stunting the
growth of growing tip (right picture).  They also feed on flower
buds damaging the inflorescence and flowers.

Broad mites are microscopic and difficult to see even with a
good hand lens.  They thrive in warm and humid condition
especially in rainy season.
Damage to young expanding leaves (left and middle picture) by
broad mites causing the leaves to brittle, distort and curl (right
picture).

Dicofol and Abamectin are the most effective chemicals to
control broad mites.



Suggested Reading:
Click here.
Scale insects on underside of mature leaf (left
picture), stalk and seed pod (right picture).

(under construction)
Frangipani rust (bright yellow or orange pustules) on
the underside of mainly mature leaves caused by the
fungus
Coleosporium plumeriae.  The disease thrives
in moist and humid conditions.



Suggested Reading: Click here.
Leaves damaged by Frangipani rust turn
yellow/brown that leads to early drop.  Spraying the
tree with Triadimefon (Bayleton) helps to provide
preventive control for Frangipani rust.  It is not
effective if the leaves are severely infected with the
rust.
Rust free plumerias developped by Kukiat:
Pink San Germain, Super Moon
Leaves and flowers damaged by beetles at night.  
Spraying with Sevin (Carbaryl) helps to keep the
insects away from the plants.
(under construction)
White flies on underside of mature leaf.
One of the most commonly seen cultivars infected with FMV.
Over five inches, heavy textured petal flower
Counter
Kukiat's Gardens
Symptoms in Plumerias caused by Virus
The original color of virus-free Vishanu Gold
Vishanu Gold infected with FrMV
Suggested readings: Frangipani Mosaic Virus (DPVWeb)
                             FrMV  (Plant Viruses Online)
                             FrMV testing service
                             The complete genomic RNA of FrMV
Note: The symptoms can look different in different plumeria cultivars and parts of the plant.  They do not
necessarily appear in all parts of the plant (e.g. flower and leaf) at the same time.  The symptom patterns
generally change with stage of plant development (eg. leaf age).